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What do we mean by « smart city » and where does this idea come from ?

Smart cities: Reality or Fiction? 1     Chapter 1   There are three names to remember : Songdo, Masdar and Plan IT Valley. The city of Songdo, in Korea was developed by an American company in partnership with a steel-making company called Posco and a company called CISCO with a budget of 40 billion dollars. The city received …

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Building sustainable cities as self-evolving ecosystem through direct democracy

Direct democracy as the keystone of smart city governance as a complex system Claude Rochet[1], Amine Belemlih[2] Abstract   We consider the smart city not as an addition of « smarties » (technological devices) but as a system capable of evolution all along its lifecycle, described as Urban Lifecycle Management (Rochet 2015) since a city never …

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